author = {Evelyne Lutton and Henri Maitre and Jaime Lopez-Krahe},
  title = {Determination of Vanishing  Points using Hough Transform},
  journal = {PAMI, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence},
  year = {1994},
  month = {April},
  volume = {16},
  number = {4},
  pages = {430-438},
  note = {},
  abstract = {We propose a method to locate three vanishing points on an image, corresponding 
to three orthogonal directions of the scene. This method is based on two cascaded Hough 
transforms. We show that, even in the case of synthetic images of high quality, a naive 
approach may fail, essentially due to the limitation of the image size. We take into 
account these errors as well as errors due to detection inaccuracy of the image segments, 
and provide a method efficient, even in the case of real complex scenes.},
  pdf = {Papers/Lutton-PAMI-94.pdf}
  author = {Jacques L\'evy V\'ehel and Khalid Daoudi and Evelyne Lutton},
  title = {Fractal Modeling of Speech Signals},
  journal = {Fractals},
  year = {1994},
  month = {September},
  number = {3},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {379-382},
  abstract = {In this paper, we present a method for speech signal analysis and synthesis 
based on IFS theory. We consider a speech signal and the graph of a continuous function 
whose irregularity, measured in terms of its local Hölder exponents, is arbitrary. We 
extract a few remarkable points in the signal and perform a fractal interpolation between 
them using a classical technique based on IFS theory. We thus obtain a functional 
representation of the speech signal, which is well adapted to various applications, 
as for instance voice interpolation.},
  pdf = {Papers/89_Daou.pdf},
  note = {}
  author = {E. Lutton and J. L\'evy~V\'ehel and G. Cretin and P.
		  Glevarec and C. Roll},
  title = {Mixed IFS: resolution of the inverse problem using Genetic Programming},
  journal = {Complex Systems},
  volume = {9},
  year = 1995,
  pages = {375-398},
  abstract = {We address here the resolution of the so-called inverse problem for IFS. 
This problem has already been widely considered, and some studies have been performed 
for affine IFS, using deterministic or stochastic methods (Simulated Annealing or 
Genetic Algorithm). When dealing with non affine IFS, the usual techniques do not 
perform well, except if some  a priori hypotheses on the structure of the IFS 
(number and type functions) are made. In this work, a Genetic Programming method 
is investigated to solve the "general" inverse problem, which permits to perform 
at the same time a numeric and a symbolic optimization. The use of "mixed IFS", 
as we call them, may enlarge the scope of some applications, as for example 
image compression, because they allow to code a wider range of shapes.},
  note = {(see also Inria Research Report No 2631)},
  pdf = {Papers/81_RR-2631.pdf}
  author = {E. Lutton and J. L\'evy~V\'ehel},
  title = {H\"{o}lder functions and Deception of Genetic Algorithms},
  journal = {IEEE transactions on Evolutionary computation},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  month = {July},
  year = 1998,
  pages = {56-72},
  abstract = {We present a deception analysis for Hölder functions. Our approach 
uses a decomposition on the Haar basis, which reflects in a natural way the 
Hölder structure of the function. It allows to relate the deception, the 
Hölder exponent, and some parameters of the genetic algorithms (GAs). 
These results prove that deception is connected to the irregularity of 
the fitness function, and shed a new light on the schema theory. In 
addition, this analysis may assist in understanding the influence of 
some of the parameters on the performance of a GA.},
  pdf = {Papers/50_LuttonLevy.pdf}
  author = {Collet, Pierre and Lutton, Evelyne and Raynal, Fr\'ed\'eric and Schoenauer, Marc},
  title = {Polar IFS + Parisian Genetic Programming = Efficient IFS Inverse Problem Solving},
  journal = {Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines Journal},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {1},
  number = {4},
  pages = {339-361},
  note = {October},
  abstract = {This paper proposes a new method for treating the inverse
problem for Iterated Functions Systems (IFS) using Genetic
Programming. This method is based on two original aspects. On the
fractal side, a new representation of the IFS functions, termed Polar
Iterated Functions Systems, is designed, shrinking the search space to
mostly contractive functions. Moreover, the Polar representation gives
direct access to the fixed points of the functions. On the
evolutionary side, a new variant of GP, the "Parisian" approach is
presented. The paper explains its similarity to the "Michigan"
approach of Classifier Systems: each individual of the population only
represents a part of the global solution. The solution to the inverse
problem for IFS is then built from a set of individuals. A local
contribution to the global fitness of an IFS is carefully defined for
each one of its member functions and plays a major role in the fitness
of each individual. It is argued here that both proposals result in a
large improvement in the algorithms. We observe a drastic cut-down on
CPU-time, obtaining good results with small populations in few
  pdf = {Papers/37_RR-PolarIFS.pdf}
  author = {Hamda, Hatem and  Jouve, Fran\c{c}ois and  Lutton, Evelyne and  Schoenauer, Marc and  Sebag, Mich\`ele},
  title = {Compact Unstructured Representations for Evolutionary Design},
  journal = {Applied Intelligence},
  number = {16},
  volume = {~},
  pages = {139-155},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {This paper proposes a few steps to escape structured
extensive representations for evolutionary solving of Topological
Optimum Design (TOD) problems: early results have shown the ability of
Evolutionary methods to find numerical solutions to yet unsolved TOD
problems, but those approaches were limited because the complexity of
the representation was that of a fixed underlying mesh. Different
compact unstructured representations are introduced, the complexity of
which is self-adaptive, i.e. is evolved by the algorithm itself. The
Voronoi-based representations are variable length lists of alleles
that are directly decoded into shapes, while the IFS representation,
based on fractal theory, involves a much more complex morphogenetic
process. First results demonstrates that Voronoi-based representations
allow one to push further the limits of Evolutionary Topological
Optimum Design by actually removing the correlation between the
complexity of the representations and that of the
discretization. Further comparative results among all these
representations on simple test problems indicate that the complex
causality in the IFS representation disfavor it compared to the
Voronoi-based representations.},
  pdf = {Papers/10_creative_soumis.pdf}
  author = {Leblanc, Benoit and Lutton, Evelyne  and Axel, Fran\c{c}oise},
  title = {Genetic Algorithms as a tool in the study of aperiodic
long range order : the case of X-Ray diffraction spectra of GaAs-AlAs
multilayer heterostructures},
  journal = {he European Physical Journal B},
  number = {4},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {619-629},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {We present the first application of Genetic Algorithms to
the analysis of data from an aperiodically ordered system, high
resolution X-Ray diffraction spectra from multilayer heterostructures
arranged according to a deterministic or random scheme. This method
paves the way to the solution of the ``inverse problem'', that is the
retrieval of the generating disorder from the investigation of the
spectra of an unknown sample having non crystallographic, non
quasi-crystallographic order.},
  pdf = {Papers/131_DiffracX-Final.pdf}
  author = {Leblanc, B.  and Braunschweig, B. and Toulhoat, H. and Lutton, E.},
  title = {Improving the sampling efficiency of Monte
  Carlo molecular molecular simulation: an Evolutionary Approach},
  journal = {Molecular Physics},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {101},
  number = {22},
  pages = {3293-3308},
  month = {November},
  abstract = {We present a new approach in order to improve the
convergence of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of molecular systems
belonging to complex energetic landscapes: the problem is redefined in
terms of the dynamic allocation of MC move frequencies depending on
their past efficiency, measured with respect to a relevant sampling
criterion. We introduce various empirical criteria with the aim of
accounting for the proper convergence in phase space sampling. The
dynamic allocation is performed over parallel simulations by means of
a new evolutionary algorithm involving 'immortal' individuals. The
method is bench marked with respect to conventional procedures on a
model for melt linear polyethylene. We record significant improvement
in sampling efficiencies, thus in computational load, while the
optimal sets of move frequencies are liable to allow interesting
physical insights into the particular systems simulated. This last
aspect should provide a new tool for designing more efficient new MC
moves.  },
  pdf = {Papers/152_TMPH102984.pdf}
  author = {Pauplin, Olivier and Louchet, Jean and Lutton, Evelyne and de~la~Fortelle, Arnaud},
  title = {Evolutionary Optimisation for Obstacle Detection and Avoidance in Mobile Robotics},
  journal = {Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics (JACIII)},
  volume = {9},
  number = {6},
  pages = {622-629},
  year = {2005},
  note = {Special Issue on ISCIIA'04},
  abstract = {This paper presents an artificial evolution based method
for stereo image analysis and its application to real-time obstacle
detection and avoidance for a mobile robot. It uses the Parisian
approach, which consists here in splitting the representation of the
robot's environment into a large number of simple primitives, the
"flies", which are evolved according to a biologically inspired
scheme. Results obtained on real scene with different fitness
functions are presented and discussed, and an exploitation for
obstacle avoidance in mobile robotics is proposed.  },
  pdf = {Papers/176_JACIII_Pauplin.pdf}
  author = {Lutton, Evelyne},
  title = {Darwinisme artificiel: une vue d'ensemble},
  journal = {Revue Technique et Science Informatique, TSI, Traitement du Signal, num\'ero sp\'ecial "M\'ethodologie de la gestion intelligente des senseurs"},
  volume = {22},
  number = {4},
  pages = {339-354},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {Les algorithmes g\'en\'etiques, la programmation g\'en\'etique,
les strat\'egies d'\'evolution, et ce que l'on appelle maintenant en
g\'en\'eral les algorithmes \'evolutionnaires, sont des techniques
d'optimisation stochastiques inspir\'ees de la th\'eorie de l'\'evolution
selon Darwin. Nous donnons ici une vision globale de ces techniques,
en insistant sur l'extr\^eme flexibilit\'e du concept d'\'evolution
artificielle. Cet outil a un champ tr\`es vaste d'applications, qui ne
se limite pas \`a l'optimisation pure. Leur mise en oeuvre se fait
cependant au prix d'un co\^ut calculatoire important, d'o\`u la n\'ecessit\'e
de bien comprendre ces m\'ecanismes d'\'evolution pour adapter et r\'egler
efficacement les diff\'erentes composantes de ces algorithmes. Par
ailleurs, on note que les applications-phares de ce domaine sont assez
souvent fond\'ees sur une hybridation avec d'autres techniques
d'optimisation. Les algorithmes \'evolutionnaires ne sont donc pas \`a
consid\'erer comme une m\'ethode d'optimisation concurrente des m\'ethodes
d'optimisation classiques, mais plut\^ot comme une approche
  pdf = {Papers/169_AE-RevueTSI.pdf}
  author = {Valigiani, G. and Lutton, E. and Jamont, Y. and Biojout, R. and Collet, P.},
  title = {Automatic Rating Process to Audit a Man-Hill},
  journal = {WSEAS Transactions on Advances in Engineering Education},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {3},
  number = {Issue 1},
  pages = {1-7},
  month = {January},
  note = {ISSN 1790-1979},
  abstract = {An Ant Colony Optimisation technic has been implemented in
order to help students roaming among pedagogical items proposed by the
system of Paraschool (French leading e-learning company). The large
number of students rise the idea to use the students instead of
artificials ants to leave stigmergic information on the web-site
graph. This difference brought many changes in the original ACO
process, but also a large improvement in the students'guiding
system. The concept of ``Man-Hill'' has therefore been introduced. In
this stage, the need of rating pedagogical items shows up in order to
present students with strength-adapted items. The Elo automatic chess
rating process has been applied to Paraschool system. Thanks to this
mechanism, students and pedagogical items could be rated. As a
side-effect, it is also a powerful audit system that can track
semantic problem in exercises.},
  pdf = {Papers/189_eloJour.pdf}
  author = {Landrin-Schweitzer, Yann and Collet, Pierre and Lutton, Evelyne},
  title = {Introducing Lateral Thinking in Search Engines},
  journal = {GPEM, Genetic Programming an Evolvable Hardware Journal, W. Banzhaf
  et al. Eds.},
  volume = {1},
  number = {7},
  pages = {9-31},
  year = {2006},
  note = {},
  abstract = {Too much information kills information. This common
statement applies to huge databases, where state of the art search
engines may retrieve hundreds of very similar documents for a precise
In fact, this is becoming so problematic that Novartis Pharma, one of
the leaders of the pharmaceutical industry, has come up with the
somewhat odd request to decrease the precision of their search engine,
in order to keep some diversity in the retrieved documents.
Rather than decreasing precision by introducing random noise, this
paper describes ELISE, an Evolutionary Learning Interactive Search
Engine that interactively evolves rewriting modules and rules (some
kind of elaborated user profile) along a Parisian Approach.
Additional documents are therefore retrieved that are related both to
the domains of interest of the user and to the original query, with
results that suggest of lateral thinking capabilities.  },
  pdf = {Papers/170_Elise-v9-expedieGPEM.pdf}
  author = {Dunn, Enrique and Olague, Gustavo and Lutton, Evelyne},
  title = {Parisian Camera Placement for Vision Metrology},
  journal = {Pattern Recognition Letters},
  volume = {27},
  number = {11},
  pages = {1209-1219},
  year = {2006},
  note = {},
  abstract = {This paper presents a novel camera network design
methodology based on the Parisian evolutionary computation
approach. This methodology proposes to partition the original problem
into a set of homogeneous elements, whose individual contribution to
the problem can be evaluated separately. A population comprised of
these homogeneous elements is evolved with the goal of creating a
single solution by a process of aggregation. The goal of the Parisian
evolutionary process is to locally build better individuals that
jointly form better global solutions. The implementation of the
proposed approach requires addressing aspects such as problem
decomposition and representation, local and global fitness
integration, as well as diversity preservation mechanisms. The benefit
of applying the Parisian approach to our camera placement problem is a
substantial reduction in computational effort expended in the
evolutionary optimisation process. Moreover, experimental results
coincide with previous state of the art photogrammetric network design
methodologies, while incurring in only a fraction of the computational
  pdf = {Papers/197_PRLSI-DUNN.pdf}
  author = {Lutton, Evelyne},
  title = {Evolution of Fractal Shapes for Artists and Designers},
  journal = {IJAIT, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence Tools},
  volume = {15},
  number = {4},
  pages = {651-672},
  note = {Special Issue on AI in Music and Art},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {We analyse in this paper the way randomness is
  considered and used in ArtiE-Fract. ArtiE-Fract is an interactive
  software, that allows the user (artist or designer) to explore the
  space of fractal 2D shapes with help of an interactive genetic
  programming scheme. The basic components of ArtiE-Fract are first
  described, then we focus on its use by two artists, illustrated by
  samples of their works. These ``real life'' tests have led us to
  implement additionnal components in the software. It seems obvious
  for the people who use ArtiE-Fract that this system is a versatile
  tool for creation, especially regarding the specific use of
  controlled random components.},
  pdf = {Papers/Lutton-IJAI-Final.pdf}
  author = {Olague, G. and Fernandez, F. and Perez, C. and Lutton, E.},
  title = {The Infection Algorithm: an Artificial Epidemic Approach 
for Dense Stereo Correspondence.},
  journal = {Artificial Life},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {12},
  number = {4},
  pages = {593-615},
  note = {},
  abstract = {We present a new bio-inspired approach applied to a
problem of stereo image matching. This approach is based on an
artificial epidemic process, which we call the infection
algorithm. The problem at hand is a basic one in computer vision for
3D scene reconstruction. It has many complex aspects and is known as
an extremely difficult one. The aim is to match the contents of two
images in order to obtain 3D information that allows the generation of
simulated projections from a viewpoint that is different from the ones
of the initial photographs. This process is known as view
synthesis. The algorithm we propose exploits the image contents in
order to produce only the necessary 3D depth information, while saving
computational time. It is based on a set of distributed rules, which
propagate like an artificial epidemic over the images. Experiments on
a pair of real images are presented, and realistic reprojected images
have been generated.},
  url = {}
  author = {Collet, Pierre and Lutton, Evelyne and Valigiani, Gregory},
  title = {Etude Comportementale des Hommili\`eres pour l'Optimisation},
  journal = {EpiNet, EPI Electronic Magazine},
  year = {2006},
  number = {83},
  volume = {~},
  month = {March},
  abstract = {An Ant Colony Optimisation technique has been
implemented in order to help students visit pedagogical items proposed
by Paraschool (a French leading e-learning company). The large number
of students (more than 250 000) suggested to students as artificial
ants, to leave stigmergic information on the web-site graph. This
difference brought many changes in the original ACO process, but also
a large improvement in the students' guiding system. The concept of
Man-Hill has therefore been introduced.  At this stage, it becomes
necessary to rate the pedagogical items to refine the model and
propose the students with items corresponding to their level. The Elo
rating (used in Chess competitions) is used for his purpose. As a side
effect, it revealed to be also a powerful audit system that can track
semantic problem in exercises. },
  url = {}
  author = {Lutton, Evelyne},
  title = {Evolution Artificielle et applications industrielles},
  journal = {Revue de l'Electricit\'e et de l'Electronique},
  number = {8},
  volume = {~},
  month = {Septembre},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {La transposition informatique des principes de l'\'evolution
naturelle selon Charles Darwin est \`a la base d'un ensemble de
techniques d'optimisation stochastique (algorithmes g\'en\'etiques,
strat\'egies d'\'evolution, ou plus g\'en\'eralement algorithmes
\'evolutionnaires) de plus en plus appr\'eci\'es pour leur flexibilit\'e et
leur efficacit\'e. Nous donnons ici une pr\'esentation synth\'etique des
m\'ethodes d'\'evolution artificielle. Ces outils ont un tr\`es vaste champ
d'applications, qui ne se limite pas \`a l'optimisation pure. Leur mise
en oeuvre se fait malgr\'e tout au prix d'un co\^ut de calcul important,
d'o\'u la n\'ecessit\'e de bien comprendre les m\'ecanismes d'\'evolution
artificielle pour en adapter et r\'egler efficacement les diff\'erentes
composantes. Par ailleurs, on note que les applications phares de ce
domaine sont souvent fond\'ees sur une hybridation avec d'autres
techniques d'optimisation. Les algorithmes \'evolutionnaires ne sont
donc pas \`a consid\'erer comme concurrents des algorithmes d'optimisation
plus classiques, mais plut\^ot comme compl\'ementaires.},
  url = {}
  author = {Lutton, Evelyne and Olague, Gustavo and Cagnoni, S.},
  title = {Introduction to the Special Issue on Evolutionary Computer Vision and Image Understanding},
  journal = {Pattern Recognition Letters},
  number = {11},
  volume = {27},
  year = {2006},
  month = {August},
  pages = {1161-1163},
  abstract = {~},
  pdf = {Papers/196_editorialPRL.pdf}
  author = {Valigiani, Gregory and Fonlupt, Cyril  and Lutton, Evelyne and Collet, Pierre},
  title = {Optimisation par "Hommili\`ere" de chemins p\'e`dagogiques pour un logiciel de E-Learning},
  journal = {TSI Techniques et Sciences Informatiques},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {26},
  number = {10},
  pages = {1245-1268},
  note = {Herm\`es},
  abstract = {This paper describes experiments aimed at adapting Ant
Colony Optimisation (ACO) techniques to an e-learning environment,
thanks to the fact that the available online material can be organised
in a graph by means of hyperlinks between educational topics. The idea
is to find paths in the graph making it easier for students to
improve. ACO is based on an ant-hill metaphor. In this case, however,
the agents that move on the graph are students who unconsciously leave
pheromones in the environment.  Tests showed that humans did not
behave as ants, meaning that the ACO paradigm had to be modified so
that it could work with human agents. A new word has been coined to
describe the new paradigm: "man-hill" optimization.},
  pdf = {Papers/Valigiani-tsi-2007.pdf}
  author = {Trujillo, L. and Olague, G. and Legrand, P. and Lutton, E.},
  title = {Regularity-based descriptor computed from local image oscillations},
  journal = {Optics Express, on-line journal of the Optics Society of America, OSX},
  number = {10},
  volume = {15},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {6140-6145},
  note = {},
  abstract = {This work presents a novel local image descriptor based on
the concept of pointwise signal regularity. Local image regions are
extracted using either an interest point or an interest region
detector, and discriminative feature vectors are constructed by
uniformly sampling the pointwise Hölderian regularity around each
region center. Regularity estimation is performed usin local image
oscillations, the most straightforward method directly derived from
the definition of the Hölder exponent. Furthermore, estimating the
Hölder exponent in this manner has proven to be superior when compared
to wavelet based estimation. Our detector shows invariance to
illumination change, JPEG compression, image rotation and scale
change. Results show that the proposed descriptor is stable with
respect to variations in imaging conditions, and reliable performances
metrics prove it to be comparable and in some instances better than
SIFR, the state-of-the-art in local descriptors.},
  pdf = {Papers/Trujillo-OSX.pdf}
  author = {Legrand, P. and Bourgeois-Republique, C. and Pean, V. and Harboun-Cohen, E. and L\'evy V\'ehel, J. and Frachet, B. and Lutton, E. and Collet, P.},
  title = {Interactive evolution for cochlear implants fitting},
  journal = {GPEM},
  number = {4},
  volume = {8},
  year = {2007},
  month = {December},
  pages = {319-354},
  note = {Special Issue on Medical Applications,},
  abstract = {Cochlear implants are devices that become more and more
sophisticated and adapted to the need of patients, but in the same
time they become more and more difficult to tune. After a deaf patient
has been surgically implanted, a specialised medical practitioner has
to spend hours during months to precisely fit the implant to the
patient. This process is a complex one implying two intricated tasks:
the practitioner has to tune the parameters of the device
(optimisation) while the patient's brain needs to adapt to the new
data he receives (learning). This paper presents a study that intends
to make the implant more adaptable to environment (auditive ecology)
and to simplify the preocess of fitting. Real experiments on volunteer
implanted patients are presented, that show the efficiency of
interactive evolution for this purpose.},
  pdf = {Papers/207_GPEMmainSOUMIS.pdf}
  author = {Perez, Cynthia and Olague, Gustavo and Fernandez, Francisco and Lutton, Evelyne},
  title = {An Artificial Life Approach to Dense Stereo Disparity},
  journal = {The Journal of the Artificial Life and Robotics, AROB},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {13},
  number = {2},
  month = {March},
  pages = {},
  note = {},
  abstract = {This paper presents an adaptive approach to improve the
infection algorithm that we have used to solve the dense stereo
matching problem. The algorithm presented in this paper incorporates
two different epidemic automata along a single execution of the
infection algorithm. The new algorithm attemps to provide a general
behaviour of guessing the best correspondence between a pair of
images. Our aim is to provide with a new strategy inspired of
evolutionary computation, which combines the behaviours of both
automata into a single correspondence problem. The new algorithm will
decide which automata will be used based on transmition of information
and mutation, as well as the attributes, texture and geometry, of the
input images. This article gives details about how are coded the rules
in the infection algorithm. Finally, we show experiments with a real
stereo pair, as well as with a standard test bed to show how the
infection algorithm works.},
  pdf = {Papers/olague_aliferobotics.pdf}
  author = {Trujillo, Leonardo and Olague, Gustavo and Lutton, Evelyne and Fernandez de Vega, Francisco and Dozal, Leon and Clemente, Eddie},
  title = {Speciation in Behavioral Space for Evolutionary Robotics},
  journal = {Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems},
  publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
  issn = {0921-0296},
  keyword = {Engineering},
  pages = {1-29},
  url = {},
  abstract = {In Evolutionary Robotics, population-based evolutionary computation is used to design robot neurocontrollers that produce behaviors which allow the robot to fulfill a user-defined task. However, the standard approach is to use canonical evolutionary algorithms, where the search tends to make the evolving population converge towards a single behavioral solution, even if the high-level task could be accomplished by structurally different behaviors. In this work, we present an approach that preserves behavioral diversity within the population in order to produce a diverse set of structurally different behaviors that the robot can use. In order to achieve this, we employ the concept of speciation, where the population is dynamically subdivided into sub-groups, or species, each one characterized by a particular behavioral structure that all individuals within that species share. Speciation is achieved by describing each neurocontroller using a representations that we call a behavior signature, these are descriptors that characterize the traversed path of the robot within the environment. Behavior signatures are coded using character strings, this allows us to compare them using a string similarity measure, and three measures are tested. The proposed behavior-based speciation is compared with canonical evolution and a method that speciates based on network topology. Experimental tests were carried out using two robot tasks (navigation and homing behavior), several training environments, and two different robots (Khepera and Pioneer), both real and simulated. Results indicate that behavior-based speciation increases the diversity of the behaviors based on their structure, without sacrificing performance. Moreover, the evolved controllers exhibit good robustness when the robot is placed within environments that were not used during training. In conclusion, the speciation method presented in this work allows an evolutionary algorithm to produce several robot behaviors that are structurally different but all are able to solve the same robot task.},
  year = {2011},
  pdf = {Papers/trujillo_behaviors_final.pdf}
  author = {Vidal, F.P. and Villard, P.F. and Lutton, E.},
  journal = {Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on},
  title = {Tuning of Patient Specific Deformable Models using an Adaptive Evolutionary Optimization Strategy},
  year = {2012},
  month = {October},
  volume = {59},
  number = {10},
  pages = {2942-2949},
  abstract = {We present and analyze the behavior of an evolutionary algorithm designed to estimate the parameters of a complex organ behavior model. The model is adaptable to account for patients specificities. The aim is to finely tune the model to be accurately adapted to various real patient datasets. It can then be embedded, for example, in high fidelity simulations of the human physiology. We present here an application focused on respiration modeling. The algorithm is automatic and adaptive. A compound fitness function has been designed to take into account for various quantities that have to be minimized. The algorithm efficiency is experimentally analyzed on several real test-cases: i) three patient datasets have been acquired with the breath hold protocol, and ii) two datasets corresponds to 4D CT scans. Its performance is compared with two traditional methods (downhill simplex and conjugate gradient descent), a random search and a basic realvalued genetic algorithm. The results show that our evolutionary scheme provides more significantly stable and accurate results.},
  pdf = {Papers/Vidal2012_final.pdf}
  author = {Tonda, Alberto and Lutton, Evelyne and Squillero, Giovanni},
  title = {A benchmark for cooperative coevolution},
  journal = {Memetic Computing},
  publisher = {Springer},
  volume = {4},
  number = {4},
  pages = {263-277},
  year = {2012},
  month = dec,
  note = {Special Issue on Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization. Regular research paper},
  abstract = {Cooperative co-evolution algorithms (CCEA) are a thriving sub-field of
evolutionary computation. This class of algorithms makes it possible to exploit more efficiently
the artificial Darwinist scheme, as soon as an optimisation problem can be turned into a 
co-evolution of interdependent sub-parts of the searched solution.
  Testing the efficiency of new CCEA concepts, however, it is not straightforward: while
  theres is a rich literature of benchmarks for more traditional evolutionary techniques,
  the same does not hold true for this relatively new paradigm.
  We present a benchmark problem designed to study the behavior and performance of CCEAs,
  modeling a search for the optimal placement of a set of lamps inside a room. The 
  relative complexity of the problem can be adjusted by operating on a single parameter.
  The fitness function is a trade-off between conflicting objectives, so the performance of an
  algorithm can be examined by making use of different metrics. We show
  how three different cooperative strategies, Parisian Evolution (PE), Group Evolution (GE) and
  Allopatric Group Evolution (AGE), can be applied to the problem. Using a Classical Evolution (CE) 
  approach as comparison, we analyse the behavior of each algorithm in detail,
  with respect to the size of the problem.},
  pdf = {Papers/memetic-computing-2012.pdf}
  author = {Boukhelifa, Nadia and Cancino, Waldo and Bezerianos, Anastasia and Lutton, Evelyne},
  title = {Evolutionary Visual Exploration: Evaluation With Expert Users.},
  journal = {Computer Graphics Forum},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {32},
  number = {3},
  pages = {31 - 40},
  abstract = {We present an Evolutionary Visual Exploration (EVE) system that combines visual analytics with stochastic optimisation to aid the exploration of multidimensional datasets characterised by a large number of possible views or projections. Starting from dimensions whose values are automatically calculated by a PCA, an interactive evolutionary algorithm progressively builds (or evolves) non-trivial viewpoints in the form of linear and non-linear dimension combinations, to help users discover new interesting views and relationships in their data. The criteria for evolving new dimensions is not known a priori and are partially specified by the user via an interactive interface: (i) The user selects views with meaningful or interesting visual patterns and provides a satisfaction score. (ii) The system calibrates a fitness function (optimised by the evolutionary algorithm) to take into account the user input, and then calculates new views. Our method leverages automatic tools to detect interesting visual features and human interpretation to derive meaning, validate the findings and guide the exploration without having to grasp advanced statistical concepts. To validate our method, we built a prototype tool (EvoGraphDice) as an extension of an existing scatterplot matrix inspection tool, and conducted an observational study with five domain experts. Our results show that EvoGraphDice can help users quantify qualitative hypotheses and try out different scenarios to dynamically transform their data. Importantly, it allowed our experts to think laterally, better formulate their research questions and build new hypotheses for further investigation.},
  url = { }
  author = {Descamps, Etienne and Perrot, Nathalie and Gaucel, Sbastien and Trelea, Cristian and Riaublanc Alain and Mackie, Alan and Lutton, Evelyne},
  title = {Coupling deterministic and random sequential approaches for structure and texture prediction of a dairy oil-in-water emulsion},
  journal = {IFSET Journal (Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies)},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {},
  number = {},
  pages = {},
  abstract = {Dairy products made of concentrated milk protein powder and milk fat have been experimentally shown to behave like complex systems: The resulting textures depend on various factors, including concentration and type of proteins, nature of heat treatment and homogenisation process. The aim of this paper is to combine two models in order to predict the composition of the interface of a homogenised oil-in-water emulsion, and the resulting bridge structure between the fat droplets. This structure is then correlated to the texture of the emulsion. Free unknown parameters of both models have been estimated from experimental data using an evolutionary optimisation algorithm. The resulting model fits the experimental data, and is coherent with the macroscopic texture measurements. Industrial relevance Sustainability is nowadays at the heart of industrial requirements. The development of mathematical approaches should facilitate common approaches to risk/benefit assessment and nutritional quality in food research and industry. These models will enhance knowledge on process-structure-property relationships from molecular to macroscopic level, and facilitate creation of in-silico simulators with functional and nutritional properties. The stochastic optimisation techniques (evolutionary algorithms) employed in these works allow the users to thoroughly explore the systems and optimise it. With regard to the complexity of the food systems and dynamics, the challenge of the mathematical approaches is to realise a complete dynamic description of food processing. In order to reach this objective, it is mandatory to use innovative strategies, exploiting the most recent advances in cognitive and complex system sciences.},
  url = {}
  author = {Lutton, Evelyne and Tonda, Alberto and Gaucel, Sbastien and Riaublanc Alain and Perrot, Nathalie},
  title = {Food model exploration through evolutionary optimization coupled with visualization: application to the prediction of a milk gel structure},
  journal = {IFSET Journal (Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies)},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {},
  number = {},
  pages = {},
  abstract = {Obtaining reliable in-silico food models is fundamental for a better understanding of these systems. The complex phenomena involved in these real-world processes reflect in the intricate structure of models, so that thoroughly exploring their behaviour and, for example, finding meaningful correlations between variables, become a relevant challenge for the experts. In this paper, we present a methodology based on visualisation and evolutionary computation to assist experts during model exploration. The proposed approach is tested on an established model of milk gel structures, and we show how experts are eventually able to find a correlation between two parameters, previously considered independent. Reverse-engineering the final outcome, the emergence of such a pattern is proved by physical laws underlying the oil-water interface colonisation. It is interesting to notice that, while the present work is focused on milk gel modelling, the proposed methodology can be straightforwardly generalised to other complex physical phenomena. },
  url = {}
  title = {{Evolutionary Visual Exploration: Evaluation of an IEC Framework for Guided Visual Search}},
  author = {Boukhelifa, Nadia and Bezerianos, Anastasia and Cancino, Waldo and Lutton, Evelyne},
  url = {},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {1-32.},
  journal = {{Evolutionary Computation}},
  publisher = {{Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press (MIT Press)}},
  year = {2016},
  doi = {10.1162/EVCO\_a\_00161},
  keywords = {Interactive evolutionary computation ; Visual analytics ; Information visualization ; Genetic Programming ; Data mining ; Interactive evolutionary algorithms},
  url = {},
  abstract = {We evaluate and analyse a framework for evolutionary visual exploration (EVE) that guides users in exploring large search spaces. EVE uses an interactive evolutionary algorithm to steer the exploration of multidimensional data sets toward two-dimensional projections that are interesting to the analyst. Our method smoothly combines automatically calculated metrics and user input in order to propose pertinent views to the user. In this article, we revisit this framework and a prototype application that was developed as a demonstrator, and summarise our previous study with domain experts and its main findings. We then report on results from a new user study with a clearly predefined task, which examines how users leverage the system and how the system evolves to match their needs. While we previously showed that using EVE, domain experts were able to formulate interesting hypotheses and reach new insights when exploring freely, our new findings indicate that users, guided by the interactive evolutionary algorithm, are able to converge quickly to an interesting view of their data when a clear task is specified. We provide a detailed analysis of how users interact with an evolutionary algorithm and how the system responds to their exploration strategies and evaluation patterns. Our work aims at building a bridge between the domains of visual analytics and interactive evolution. The benefits are numerous, in particular for evaluating interactive evolutionary computation (IEC) techniques based on user study methodologies.}
  author = {Lutton, Evelyne
and Gilbert, Hugo
and Cancino, Waldo
and Bach, Benjamin
and Pallamidessi, Joseph
and Parrend, Pierre
and Collet, Pierre},
  title = {Visual and Audio Monitoring of Island Based Parallel Evolutionary Algorithms},
  journal = {Journal of Grid Computing},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {13},
  number = {3},
  pages = {309--327},
  abstract = {Monitoring and visualisation tools are currently attracting more and more attention in order to understand how search spaces are explored by complex optimisation ecosystems such as parallel evolutionary algorithms based on island models. Multilevel visualisation is actually a desirable feature for facilitating the monitoring of computationally expensive runs involving several hundreds of computers during hours or even days. In this paper we present two components of a future multilevel monitoring system: MusEAc, a high level, audio monitoring allowing to listen to a run and tune it in real time and GridVis, a lower lever, more precise a posteriori visualisation tool that lets the user understand why the algorithm has performed well or bad.},
  issn = {1572-9184},
  doi = {10.1007/s10723-014-9321-8},
  url = {}
  title = {Some remarks on computational approaches towards sustainable complex agri-food systems },
  journal = {Trends in Food Science & Technology },
  volume = {48},
  number = {},
  pages = {88 - 101},
  year = {2016},
  note = {},
  issn = {0924-2244},
  doi = {},
  url = {},
  author = {Nathalie Perrot and Hugo De Vries and Evelyne Lutton and Harald G.J. van Mil and Mechthild Donner and Alberto Tonda and Sophie Martin and Isabelle Alvarez and Paul Bourgine and Erik van der Linden and Monique A.V. Axelos},
  keywords = {Agri-food systems},
  keywords = {Sustainability},
  keywords = {Multiscale modeling},
  keywords = {Optimization},
  keywords = {Resilience},
  keywords = {Human-machine interactive learning },
  abstract = {AbstractBackground Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry in Europe and potentially a major contributor to the global warming. Sustainability issues in this context pose a huge challenge for several reasons: the variety of considered scales, the number of disciplines involved, the uncertainties, the out-of-equilibrium states, the complex quantitative and qualitative factors, the normative issues and the availability of data. Although important insight and breakthroughs have been attained in different scientific domains, an overarching and integrated analysis of these complex problems have yet to be realized. Scope and Approach This context creates huge opportunities for research in interaction with mathematical programming, integrative models and decision-support tools. The paper propose a computational viewpoint including questions of holistic approach, multiscale reconstruction and optimization. Some directions are discussed. Key Findings and Conclusions Several research questions based on a mathematical programming framework are emerging: how can such a framework manage uncertainty, cope with complex qualitative and quantitative information essential for social and environmental considerations, encompass diverse scales in space and time, cope with a multivariable dynamic environment and with scarcity of data. Moreover, how can it deal with different perspectives, types of models, research goals and data produced by conceptually disjoint scientific disciplines, ranging from physics and physiology to sociology and ethics? Building models is essential, but highly difficult; it will need a strong iterative interaction combining computational intensive methods, formal reasoning and the experts of the different fields. Some future research directions are proposed, involving all those dimensions: mathematical resilience, human-machine interactive learning and optimization techniques. }

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